An important part of the projects involving microcontrollers is the Shield. By interfacing the microcontroller with sensors and output devices which require high currents, they are fundamental for the control of solenoids, relays, motors and other high power devices. See in this article how to work with these important interfaces.
Using the Hydraulic Pressure
Hydraulic machines can be used to obtain nechanical advantage. The principle is in the use of pistons but basically we can understand how they work starting from simple tubes as shown by figure 1.
The switched mode power supply are sources that control the voltage in a load by opening and closing a switch circuit in order to maintain the desired voltage for the opening and closing time of this circuit. This configuration is common in modern appliances due the advantages that they present.
Symmetric sources are widely used to power circuits which use operational amplifiers, voltage comparators, and A/D converters that operate in conjunction with microcontrollers. These sources generate a negative and a positive voltage, of equal values ??regarding a reference (ground or 12 V). In this article, based on our book "Power Supplies" (only in portuguese now), we describe some symmetrical sources of great utility for designers.
PLL or Phase Locked Loop is the name of one of the most important of all circuits we currently find in electronic applications of all kinds. The PLL stands for frequency as the operational amplifier stands for voltage. Any electronic professional working with communication circuits, digital instrumentation, DSPs, microcontrollers and microprocessors or even analogue signal circuits, need to know the PLL principle of operation. In this article, we will simply analyze the operation of this important basic electronic circuit.
Springs are elastic devices that can be twisted, stretched or pulled by external forces. They can return to their original shape when the external force is released.
Figure 1 shows some types of springs.
Controlled CMOS Oscillator (CB890E)
This circuit can gerenate square signals and be comanded by na external control. When the input...
High Impedance Amplifier (CB889E)
This two-stage amplifier hás a high impedance input and excelent voltage gain. It can be used as a...
CMOS 4001 Crystal Oscillator (CB888E)
Frequencies up to 5 MHz can be poroduced by this circuit. The output is a square wave signal. The...
Bridge Capacimeter (CB887E)
This circuit consists in a capacitor bridge for capacitance measurements. The circuit can be...
4093 Oscillator (MSB0125E)
This oscillator can run in frequencies up 10 MHz depending on the Power supply voltage. The 1 µF...
Decade Counter (MSB124E)
This one-digit counter is part f the samples bench of the MultiSIM in one of its versions. The...
Simple Timer Using the 555 (MSB123E)
This simple timer can be used in many applications such as egg timer. The LED glows up when S1 is...
Ultrasound Emitter (MSB122E)
The circuit shown by the figure below can produce signals in the range between 20 kHz and 30 kHz....